The ORTEC Detective family of Hand-Held Radioisotope Identifiers (HHRIDs) has gained an unmatched reputation for performance in the rapid identification of radioisotopes in both suspected and actual cases of illicit nuclear materials trafficking.
ORTEC Detectives are deployed ever more widely in the battle against illicit nuclear trafficking. Hundreds are being used world wide by (among others):
- Departments of Homeland Security
- Departments of Defense
- National Security Organizations
- Bomb Disposal Teams
- Emergency Response Teams
- Customs and Border Control
- Navy, Army and Air Forces
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- Emergency Management Teams
- Civil Support Teams
- Police Departments
- Nuclear Safeguards Organizations
- Nuclear Fuel Manufacturers
- Nuclear Researchers
- US NNSA second line of defense “Megaports” initiative
- Highest performance HPGe nuclide identifier: now improved further by latest advanced algorithms.
- High resolution gamma spectroscopy with confirmatory neutron detection in EX models.
- Definitive answers to the detection of illicit nuclear materials (SNM) trafficking in seconds, in a battery operated instrument.
- Fast, Simple and ULTRA-Reliable Classification of NORM, Medical, Industrial, SNM and Natural Isotopes, shielded and unshielded.
- ANSI N42-34 compliant.
- Simple to Operate: Bright, Clear Displays, touch sensitive screens, intuitive menus.
- Multiple uses (e.g.): Hand-Held Nuclide Identifier, Emergency Whole-Body Counter, Ad-hoc Portal Monitor, Search System, Food Monitor.
- Gamma-Ray and Neutron Search Modes.
- SNM Search Mode™ finds SNM sources in the presence of other sources.
- Compatible with Detective-Remote search system.
- USB and Wireless 802.11 Communications.
- Wireless Mobile MCB Server software.
- Built in GPS.
- Secure Digital (SDIO) slot.
- Three “Search Modes”:
Gamma/neutron total count rate
SNM Search mode
Sliding average “monitor” mode
- User choice of identification schemes
Classify Mode (by nuclide type: “nuclear, natural, medical, industrial, etc.”)
Time preset or continuous count selectable to match CONOPS
Suspected Nuclides (not in preset mode)
More sensitive LCX mode for SNM detection
- Background collect feature eliminates reporting of background nuclides.
- “Smart” spectrum stabilizer ensures optimum results, even with hard-to-analyze spectra.
- ANSI N42.42 format storage of spectra.
- Detective-EX-100T: The Detective-EX made faster! A larger 65 mm x 50 mm HPGe detector version of the -EX.
- Detective-DX-100T: “Gamma only” versions of the Detective-EX-100T.
(all models except where noted)
Gamma and neutron (if applicable) count rates are presented as a time tracking strip chart. Neutron counts are displayed in red and gamma counts in blue.
Detective collects one spectrum per second and runs the ID algorithm against an 8 second sliding average. More sensitive to sources which move relative to the instrument. Monitor mode is a valuable search method, but is also useful, for example, in ad-hoc portal monitoring applications.
SNM Search Mode
SNM Search mode is designed to help avoid false negatives when determining SNM. It helps in finding the point of maximum count rate which COULD be consistent with SNM.
Key regions of the spectrum are monitored which are critical to the determination of both U-235 (the key constituent of HEU) and Pu-239. The peak region confidence level is displayed in the form of a bar graph. A high and steady reading indicates that "something" is present which is worthy of more investigation. Once the maximum reading has been located, the "confirm" key initiates the full identification algorithm.
SNM Search mode is an INDICATOR of SNM but should always be followed by the confirmatory ID to avoid false positives. In combination, SNM Search and ID modes minimize BOTH false negatives and false positives.
GAMMA DOSE RATE
Gamma Dose Rate is monitored by the HPGe detector and by an internal compensated GM tube. The dose rate is displayed at all times. Dose rate units may be chosen as µSv/hr or mrem/hr.
NEUTRON COUNT RATE (-EX models)
Neutron Count Rate is displayed continuously. The data can be quickly saved and transmitted for further offsite analysis.
GPS Position Information
An internal GPS receiver displays GPS coordinates which may be saved along with spectrum data for future use.
Storage of Data (spectrum, search data, ID results)
To internal RAM and removable SD card.
USB connection to laptop. Spectral transfer by MicroSoft® ActiveSync. Remote control via MicroSoft “remotedsp.exe”. Wi-fi (802.11) communication.
All models feature a large, bright and clear LCD Display with touch-sensitive screen. The figure shows the main operator screen. Gamma and neutron (-EX) count rate and gamma dose rate are displayed continuously both numerically and in bar graph form. The battery life remaining is shown at the top.
In response to customer requests, Detective instruments can now operate in two modes “Classify” and “ANSI”.
The user presses the Identify button and the instrument gathers data until manually stopped, without preset. During the acquisition, suspected nuclide classification messages appear, such as “Suspect Industrial 1”, meaning the presence of one industrial nuclide is suspected. As the count continues and confidence levels increase, this might change to “Found Industrial 1” or disappear as better statistics determine the previously suspected nuclide was not, in fact, present. Clicking on the “Found” or “Suspect” message gives a listing of which nuclides were actually found (or suspected) by name.
This mode is similar to classify mode, but dispenses with the classification, and presents nuclide names directly, both suspect and found.
This is to allow for CONOPS* in which it is required to count for a preset time, for example 60 seconds. At the end of the preset period, only what has been found is reported, no suspects are reported. The operator can request a count time extension, if desired, adding multiples of the original preset period.
LCX (Low-Confidence Expert) ID Mode
LCX mode is password protected. LCX denotes “Low Confidence-Expert,” and is intended for expert users. This identification mode displays suspected threat alarms and identifications at a lower confidence level than the normal mode. This results in more hits on suspected threat nuclides.
The instrument is calibrated prior to shipment from the factory. The energy calibration may be checked and adjusted with any known source with a clean gamma ray between 0 and 3 MeV. A higher energy is recommended. Cs-137 is often used. Calibration can be manual or automatic. Background collection is now a required part of calibration. By allowing for activities already in the background, the system will no longer report nuclides detected in the background. These IDs on former versions sometimes lead to user-confusion. The background must be updated on a schedule which is chosen by the privileged user.
The “smart stabilizer” stabilizes the gain very precisely on the 1460 keV peak of K-40, if present. The smart part is that if there is no K-40 present or if Eu-152 is detected, which could interfere with the K-40 peak, the stabilizer setting is held but not adjusted until “normal” conditions return. Even though the Detective is a highly stable instrument, the smart stabilizer allows accurate determination of more complicated mixed spectra.
All -EX/-DX models feature the same bright and clear VGA resolution display with touch sensitive operator screen. Menu navigation is highly intuitive. The radionuclide gamma-ray spectrum may be displayed and manipulated (e.g., vertical scale, zoom) like a conventional multichannel analyzer. Y-axis units are now displayed.
Detective can draw power from a variety of sources. For initial cool down from ambient temperature, the Detective is placed on the docking station, or attached to the compact AC/Power Adapter/Charger (PAC). The docking station provides small air movers to assist with initial cool down in conditions of high ambient temperature (>40°C) and incorporates a source holder for the optional CS-137 calibration check source. The docking station is recommended for high ambient temperatures. The PAC is the much more compact solution. K-40, as found in dietary salt substitute, is an easy to obtain calibration check source for use with the PAC.
The optional source is ~0.25-µCi (9250 Bq) solid and sealed. It is an exempt quantity under U.S. and European regulations and is only supplied pre-installed by ORTEC (not separately).
Gamma-Ray Identification Performance Data for Uranium and Plutonium
(Typical values based on data obtained from actual measurements by ORTEC personnel.)
Unless otherwise stated, these data were taken at a standard dose rate from the source of 500 nSv/h measured with a calibrated dose rate meter at the instrument detector face according to ANSI N42.34. When an absorber was present, the dose rate at the detector was measured THROUGH the absorber.
Unshielded and Shielded Uranium: DU, U-NAT, LEU, HEU
The time to identify as uranium, either unshielded or shielded by up to 5 mm steel, is <2.5 sec. For LEU and HEU samples, the type ("LEU" or "HEU") is also reported in <2.5 sec. LEU and HEU samples shielded by 1.6 mm lead are identified as Uranium in <2.5 sec.
Unshielded and Shielded Plutonium: Weapons Grade (WG), Reactor Grade (RG) (~60–93% 239Pu)
Time to identify as Pu, unshielded or shielded by up to 5 mm steel or 10 mm lead: <13 seconds for all types of Pu (with Cd filter if high Am content). For WG Pu the type "WG Pu" is also reported in less than <35 sec.
In all cases, the mixture consists of 500 nSv/h of the "mask" nuclide, added to the specified quantity of uranium or plutonium. The "dose ratio threshold" is defined to be the standard 500 nSv/h dose rate from the mask in ratio to the smallest dose rate from U or Pu detectable in the time stated.
Uranium at 500 nSv/h in the presence of Cs-137 or Co-57 mask (unshielded)
Time to identify as uranium <2.5 sec. For LEU and HEU, the type ("LEU" or "HEU") is also reported in <2.5 sec.
Uranium Dose ratio threshold for 60 second measurement in the presence of Cs-137 or Co-57 mask (Dose from mask: Dose from uranium)
>7:1 for identification as uranium unshielded
>3:1 shielded 5 mm steel
>2:1 for reporting as LEU or HEU unshielded
>1.5:1 shielded 5 mm steel
Plutonium at 500 nSv/h in the presence of Ba-133 mask
Time to identify as Pu <20 sec, unshielded or shielded by 5 mm steel or 10 mm lead. Identified type as RG Pu or WG Pu in <100 sec.
Plutonium Dose ratio threshold for 5 minute measurement in the presence of Ba-133 mask
>6:1 for identification as Pu unshielded, >4:1 shielded by 5 mm steel or 10 mm lead.
>1:1 for reporting as WG Pu or RG Pu unshielded or shielded by 5 mm steel or 10 mm steel (with Cd filter if high Am content).
Analysis Algorithm Improvements
Detective series instruments have proven highly resistant to false positive and false negative results. Recent improvements to the Detective algorithms have enhanced this already excellent performance still further. In Version 3, the implementation of the background subtraction has removed the reporting of nuclides identified in the background. While technically not an incorrect result, reporting of background nuclides was considered undesirable by some experts. The smart stabilizer has improved the analysis of some difficult masking scenarios.
The Detective-EX-100T and Detective-DX-100T are members of the ORTEC CONNECTIONS family. Remote MCA control and individual spectrum download, even over a network, is achieved simply, by the use of ORTEC CONNECTIONS products such as MAESTRO MCA Emulation software.
Detective-EX-100T/-DX-100T are fully supported by the latest versions of the highly successful MAESTRO MCA Emulator as well as ORTEC Gamma Spectroscopy Packages such as GammaVision for generalized HPGe spectrum analysis, FRAM and MGAHI for Pu and U isotopic ratio analysis and ISOPlus for in-situ waste assay analysis. NOTE: MAESTRO is supplied as part of packages containing "PKG" in the model number, or it can be purchased separately at a later date.
The integral USB connection in the instrument hardware provides full PC control, real-time live MCA display, fast data transfer of single and multiple spectra to the PC, and full ORTEC CONNECTIONS network support.
Multiple spectra may be block-transferred from the instrument controller to external PCs by the use of Microsoft ActiveSync. Third party products such SOTI “Pocket Controller Enterprise” may be used to implement the 802.11 wireless feature to provide remote wireless control of the complete instrument.
Mobile MCB Server
The Mobile MCB Server software application enables any ORTEC portable instrument installed with a PDA to communicate wirelessly with ORTEC software applications such as MAESTRO, GammaVision, and Detective-Remote. The Mobile MCB Server acts like a wireless version of the USB connection, allowing users to control and monitor any portable spectrometer through a wireless network.
Users can develop their own applications through the use of the optional A11 tool kit.